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Hugo: Deploy Static Site using GitHub Actions

Hugo: Deploy Static Site using GitHub Actions
Photo by Jules D. on Unsplash

If you are using Hugo to generate static pages, you are familiar with CLI commands which are to build the static pages in your local machine and make push to your <username>.github.io repository. When it comes to using Hugo for blogging, compared to platforms like Medium or WordPress, it is very painful because you do not have any web interface to make changes whenever you want or wherever you want.

But thanks to GitHub Actions, you can almost overcome this problem, just you won’t have an admin panel like other platforms, but use GitHub’s UI to make changes. In this article, we will see how you can do that and without using any CLI, deploy your static pages!!

What is GitHub Actions

GitHub Actions is a CI/CD tool to automate test, build and deployment process in GitHub. It is kind of equivalent to GitLab CI/CD or BitBucket Pipelines. GitHub actions will make it easy to automate all your software workflows.

Steps to deploy Hugo with GitHub actions

We are going to deploy our site in GitHub Static Pages for this article. Let us go step by step from setting up Hugo to create actions for deployment. Also, in the first few steps you need to use CLI from your local machine, but just bear with me and you will be rewarded handsomely at the end 😄.

FYI: If you already have a Hugo based setup in GitHub, you can skip the first three steps.

Step 1: Setting up repo named <username>.github.io in GitHub

You need to create a repository named <your GitHub username>.github.io. Contents on that page will be accessible via url same name as the repo.

Step 2: Install and create a Hugo project

You need to install Hugo in your local machine and use that to create a site. Please take a look at the official documentation on how to do that.

Step 3: Push Hugo site code in GitHub

Now create a new GitHub repo for that Hugo site, and push to master branch. Just follow this steps:

git init
git remote add origin git@github.com:<username>/<repo-name>
git add --all
git commit -m "Commit MSG"
git push origin master

If you have added a theme, then consider adding it as submodule(also stated in the hugo documentation):

git submodule add https://github.com/budparr/gohugo-theme-ananke.git themes/ananke

Better if you update the submodule to get latest theme changes before pushing the code:

git submodule update --init --recursive
git push origin master

Or you can always update the latest theme in the actions. Example has been shared in create github action section.

Step 4: Create GitHub token

Now you need to generate a token with repo access from the GitHub’s tokens page. You will get a 40 character long token by generating the token. Store it somewhere securely.

github

Step 5: Add token as secret in GitHub

The token last step, you can store it in the Secrets setting of the repo. It can be accessible from https://github.com/<username>/<repo-name>/settings/secrets. Store it like this:

github

Step 6: Create A GitHub Action

Now it is time to do the fun stuff. Let us create an action in .github/workflows/ folder inside the repo(hugo site repo) and name it main.yml.

name: CI
on: push
jobs:
  deploy:
    runs-on: ubuntu-18.04
    steps:
      - name: Git checkout
        uses: actions/checkout@v2

      - name: Update theme
        # (Optional)If you have the theme added as submodule, you can pull it and use the most updated version
        run: git submodule update --init --recursive

      - name: Setup hugo
        uses: peaceiris/actions-hugo@v2
        with:
          hugo-version: "0.64.0"

      - name: Build
        # remove --minify tag if you do not need it
        # docs: https://gohugo.io/hugo-pipes/minification/
        run: hugo --minify

      - name: Deploy
        uses: peaceiris/actions-gh-pages@v3
        with:
          personal_token: ${{ secrets.TOKEN }}
          external_repository: <username>/<username>.github.io
          publish_dir: ./public
          #   keep_files: true
          user_name: <username>
          user_email: <username@email.com>
          publish_branch: master
        #   cname: example.com

As mentioned from main.yml file, it is named CI and this is going to be triggered when something is pushed to the repo. It will be using an ubuntu-18.04 based VPS to run the pipeline. Now let us go through steps to understand how it works:

  1. In the Git checkout step, we are going to fetch the latest code of our repository which contains Hugo site.

  2. In the Setup hugo step, we are going to use peaceiris/actions-hugo to install Hugo. You need to specify which hugo version you want to use. I would recommend using hugo version of your local machine(command: hugo version).

  3. In the Build step, we are going to build the static contents using hugo --minify command. By using --minify, we are going to minify the assets in the site. For more information, checkout the hugo documentation.

  4. Finally, the Deploy step. Now we are going to deploy the static contents from the last step. And we are going to use peaceiris/actions-gh-pages actions to run the deployment. Here, we used external_repository: <username>/<username>.github.io because otherwise the static contents would be pushed in the same repo(in a different branch). As we specified the external repository, the static contents will be pushed to <username>.github.io. For this step, we will use the personal token which we specified in Step 5. If you uncomment keep_files: true, then the deployment will keep old files from <username>.github.io, otherwise it will replace everything. Finally, if you have a custom domain, then configuring cname is necessary. For more information, please check documentation in GitHub marketplace.

Step 7: Push to GitHub

Now push to your Hugo site repository and voila, your action will start automatically. You can check its progress in the actions tab.

github

After each successful run, it will push the static contents to your static page repository.

Step 8: Never use CLI again

Now you have everything in GitHub, so you do not need to come back to your local machine and use CLI to push changes. Use the web interface, and GitHub actions will take care of the rest.

In conclusion

Although you need to create a Hugo site in your local machine and push it manually to GitHub at least for the first time and consequent changes can be done from the web(but you can do that from your local machine as well). Just create a markdown file in repo and boom! It is on the internet.

Thank you for reading. If you have any questions or a better solution, let us talk in the comment section below. Cheers!!

Last updated: July 6, 2020

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